What are plant growth Regulators? Know how they affect plant growth ..!

Plant growth regulators are synthetic or natural compounds that affect developmental or metabolic processes in plants. They help in improving the effectiveness of the plant. They help in modifying plant growth and increasing yield. It changes the rate or pattern, or both, of its response to the internal and external factors that govern development from germination through vegetative growth, reproductive development, maturity, and senescence or ageing, as well as postharvest preservation.

Growth Regulators –

Auxins – Auxins are the most commonly used, growth regulators. They influence cell growth expansion and elongation. Stimulate root formation and Induce vascular differentiation. They Promote tropic responses. They also maintain the apical dominance (the main, central stem of the plant is dominant over other side stems)They help in delaying leaf senescence (which is when leaves are close to dying in the plant life cycle). They Induce the development of auxiliary buds, flowers, and fruits.

Cytokinins – Cytokinins affect mitosis (chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei) and cytokinesis (the cytoplasm of a parental cell is split into two daughter cells). They Promote lateral bud growth and leaf expansion. They also delay leaf senescence. They Promote chlorophyll synthesis and enhance chloroplast development as well.

Gibberellins – Gibberellins promote stem elongation and Induce flowering. They also do the Cone initiation (in conifers, the cones are the reproductive organs). They are effective in promoting seed germination.

Abscisic acid – Abscisic acid regulate seed germination and induces storage protein synthesis. They modulate water stress and maintain bud and seed dormancy (seed remains asleep or inactivated). They help in slowing cell elongation. They Regulate the closing of stomatal apertures (reducing transpiration). Also Modulating of leaf abscission and senescence is done. They play a role in seed maturation also.

Ethylene – Ethylene promotes the development of roots and shoots. In conjunction with other phytohormones, this gas promotes fruit ripening, senescence, and leaf abscission.

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