Oil Seed Farming | Mustard Cultivation – A complete guide towards Varieties, Seed rate and more.

Mustard and Rapeseed are cultivated for their oil content. After soybean and palm oil, it is the third most important oilseed in the world. Mustard seeds and their oil is used for culinary purpose. Young leaves are used for vegetable purposes. Its oil cake is used for feeding cattle. Indian mustard, brown and yellow sarson, Raya and Toria crops are included in mustard rapeseed groups. Today we will know about the mustard plant and its cultivation procedure.

Climate & Soil – Mustard is cultivated in dry and cool weather. The mustard seed tree requires temperatures between 10°C to 25°C. Mustard Crop does not tolerate freeze, so it requires a clear sky with frost-free conditions. Medium to deep soils with good drainage is best suitable for cultivating the mustard crop. Soil’s ideal pH range for mustard variety is 6.0 to 7.5.

Land Preparation- 1 to 2 ploughings and two harrowings gave as part of field preparation for mustard farming. Apply 15-20 tonnes of farm yard manure or well-decomposed cow dung in the soil.

Sowing – Mustard farming is usually planted in the Sept-Oct months. For better mustard seed germination, seeds have planted a maximum of 6 cm depth in the soil. For toria crop, farming from the first fortnight of September to October. African sarson and Taramira can be sown in the whole of October month. For Raya crop complete sowing from Mid October to November End.

Seed Rate – Rapeseed : 1.5kg/ acre ; Mustard : 4-5 kg / hectare.

Spacing- For rapeseed:- Row to Row distance of 30 cm and plant to plant distance of 10-15 cm.

Seed Treatment – Seed treatment is essential to control seed-borne diseases.Before sowing do seed treatment with Thiram at 3gm per kg of seeds.

Varieties – PBT 37 , TL 15 , TL 17 , RLM 619 , PBR 91 , PBR 97 , PBR 210 , RLC 3 , PBR 210, PGSH 51 , T 59 (Varuna) , GSC 6 , RH 0749 .

Fertilizer Management- Apply 15-20 tonnes of FYM or compost at the time of field preparation. And 60-90kg nitrogen, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per hectare. Split application of nitrogen has been found useful for rape and mustard crops.

Harvesting – Mustard harvesting is carried out as soon as the pods turn yellow & the seed grows hard. The mustard crop grows in about 110 to 160 days. Harvesting is done in the early morning hours to avoid any shattering of stock.

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